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Data sources

1) Baseline data

2) Historical data

3) Future climate data

4) Paleoclimate data

5) How to add climate data from additional GCMs

Climate variables predicted

1) Annual variables

2) Seasonal variables

3) Monthly variables

How to install

How to use

1) Use the program interactively

2) For multi-location process

3) For Time Series

4) Read and output raster map files

5) Process the raster output files

6) Tutorial videos


About the package

ClimateNA is a standalone MS Windows software application (Wang et al. 2016) that extracts and downscales gridded (4 x 4 km) monthly climate data for the reference normal period (1961-1990) from PRISM (Daly et al. 2008) and WorldClim (Hijmans et al. 2005) to scale-free point locations. It also calculates many (>200) monthly, seasonal and annual climate variables. The downscaling is achieved through a combination of bilinear interpolation and dynamic local elevational adjustment. ClimateNA also uses the scale-free data as a baseline to downscale historical and future climate variables for individual years and periods between 1901 and 2100. A time-series function is available to generate climate variables for multiple locations and multiple years.

The program can read and output comma-delimitated spreadsheet (CSV) files. The new version (v6.00) can also directly read digital elevation model (DEM) raster (ASC) files and output climate variables in raster format for mapping. The spatial resolution of the raster files is up to user’s preference. The coverage of the program is shown in Figure 1.



Figure 1. The coverage of ClimateNA. The extent of the coverage: longitude = -179.167 ~ -52.625°; latitude = 14.453 ~ 83.203°.


Data sources

1) Baseline data

2) Historical data

Historical monthly data were developed by ourselves and replaced the data from Climate Research Unit (CRU ts4.01), which were used in previous versions, for improved accuracies. The data are at the spatial resolution is 0.5 x 0.5°.

3) Future climate data

The climate data for future periods, including 2020s (2010-2039), 2050s (2040-69) and 2080s (2070-2100), were from General Circulation Models (GCMs) of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5) included in the IPCC Fifth Assessment Report (IPCC 2014). Fifteen GCMs were selected for three greenhouse gas emission scenarios (RCP 2.6, RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5) except two GCMs that do not have data for RCP 2.6. When multiple ensembles are available for each GCM, an average was taken over the available (up to five) ensembles. Ensembles among the 15 GCMs are also available. Time-series of monthly projections are provided for the years between 2011-2100 for RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5 of six GCMs.  

4) Paleoclimate data

Monthly paleoclimate data were from four GCMs of the CMIP5. The paleo periods covered: 1) Last Millennium or past 1000 years, starting on January 01, 0850; 2) MidHolocene (6,000 years ago); and 3) Last Glacial Maximum (21,000 kyrs ago). Monthly averages were taken over the first 50 years of each period, which is the minimum period available in among the four GCMs.

5) How to add climate data from additional GCMs

The coordinate file “ClimateNA_GCM_coord_vID.csv” included in the “Reference” folder can be used as a template to add additional GCM data to the package by users. After the monthly climate data are added to the template, remove the first three columns and save it to the GCMdat folder with the extension name “.gcm”. This applies to GCM time series data as well.

Climate variables predicted

1) Annual variables:

Directly calculated annual variables:

MAT               mean annual temperature (°C),

MWMT           mean warmest month temperature (°C),

MCMT            mean coldest month temperature (°C),

TD                  temperature difference between MWMT and MCMT, or continentality (°C),

MAP               mean annual precipitation (mm),

MSP               May to September precipitation (mm),

AHM               annual heat-moisture index (MAT+10)/(MAP/1000))

SHM               summer heat-moisture index ((MWMT)/(MSP/1000))           

Derived annual variables:

DD<0              degree-days below 0°C, chilling degree-days

DD>5              degree-days above 5°C, growing degree-days

DD<18            degree-days below 18°C, heating degree-days

DD>18            degree-days above 18°C, cooling degree-days

NFFD              the number of frost-free days

FFP                 frost-free period

bFFP               the day of the year on which FFP begins

eFFP                the day of the year on which FFP ends

PAS                 precipitation as snow (mm). For individual years, it covers the period between August in the previous year and July in the current year.

EMT                extreme minimum temperature over 30 years

EXT                extreme maximum temperature over 30 years

Eref                 Hargreaves reference evaporation (mm)

CMD               Hargreaves climatic moisture deficit (mm)

MAR               mean annual solar radiation (MJ m‐2 d‐1)

RH                 mean annual relative humidity (%) 

CMI                Hogg’s climate moisture index (mm)

DD1040         Degree-days above 10°C and below 40°C

2) Seasonal variables:

Winter (_wt): Dec (prev. yr for an individual year) - Feb for annual, Jan, Feb, Dec for normals

Spring (_sp): March, April and May

Summer (_sm): June, July and August

Autumn (_at): September, October and November

 Directly calculated seasonal variables:

Tave_wt          winter mean temperature (°C)

Tave_sp           spring mean temperature (°C)

Tave_sm          summer mean temperature (°C)

Tave_at           autumn mean temperature (°C)

 Tmax_wt         winter mean maximum temperature (°C)

Tmax_sp          spring mean maximum temperature (°C)

Tmax_sm         summer mean maximum temperature (°C)

Tmax_at          autumn mean maximum temperature (°C)

 Tmin_wt          winter mean minimum temperature (°C)

Tmin_sp          spring mean minimum temperature (°C)

Tmin_sm         summer mean minimum temperature (°C)

Tmin_at           autumn mean minimum temperature (°C)

 PPT_wt           winter precipitation (mm)

PPT_sp            spring precipitation (mm)

PPT_sm           summer precipitation (mm)

PPT_at            autumn precipitation (mm)

 RAD_wt         winter solar radiation (MJ m-2 d-1)

RAD_sp          spring solar radiation (MJ m-2 d-1)

RAD_sm         summer solar radiation (MJ m-2 d-1)

RAD_at          autumn solar radiation (MJ m-2 d-1) 

Derived seasonal variables:

DD_0_wt        winter degree-days below 0°C

DD_0_sp         spring degree-days below 0°C

DD_0_sm        summer degree-days below 0°C

DD_0_at         autumn degree-days below 0°C

 DD5_wt          winter degree-days above 5°C

DD5_sp           spring degree-days above 5°C

DD5_sm          summer degree-days above 5°C

DD5_at           autumn degree-days above 5°C

 DD_18_wt      winter degree-days below 18°C

DD_18_sp       spring degree-days below 18°C

DD_18_sm      summer degree-days below 18°C

DD_18_at       autumn degree-days below 18°C

 DD18_wt        winter degree-days above 18°C

DD18_sp         spring degree-days above 18°C

DD18_sm        summer degree-days above 18°C

DD18_at         autumn degree-days above 18°C

 NFFD_wt        winter number of frost-free days

NFFD_sp        spring number of frost-free days

NFFD_sm       summer number of frost-free days

NFFD_at         autumn number of frost-free days

 PAS_wt           winter precipitation as snow (mm)

PAS_sp           spring precipitation as snow (mm)

PAS_sm          summer precipitation as snow (mm)

PAS_at            autumn precipitation as snow (mm)

 Eref_wt           winter Hargreaves reference evaporation (mm)

Eref_sp            spring Hargreaves reference evaporation (mm)

Eref_sm           summer Hargreaves reference evaporation (mm)

Eref_at            autumn Hargreaves reference evaporation (mm)

 CMD_wt         winter Hargreaves climatic moisture deficit (mm)

CMD_sp         spring Hargreaves climatic moisture deficit (mm)

CMD_sm        summer Hargreaves climatic moisture deficit (mm)

CMD_at          autumn Hargreaves climatic moisture deficit (mm)

 RH_wt            winter relative humidity (%)

RH_sp             winter relative humidity (%)

RH_sm            winter relative humidity (%)

RH_at             winter relative humidity (%)  

CMI_wt           winter Hogg’s climate moisture index (mm)

CMI_sp           spring Hogg’s climate moisture index (mm)

CMI_sm          summer Hogg’s climate moisture index (mm)

CMI_at           autumn Hogg’s climate moisture index (mm)

3) Monthly variables

Primary monthly variables:

Tave01 – Tave12     January - December mean temperatures (°C)

TMX01 – TMX12      January - December maximum mean temperatures (°C)

TMN01 – TMN12      January - December minimum mean temperatures (°C)

PPT01 – PPT12       January - December precipitation (mm)

RAD01 – RAD12      January - December solar radiation (MJ m‐2 d‐1)


Derived monthly variables:

DD_0_01 – DD_0_12             January - December degree-days below 0°C

DD5_01 – DD5_12                January - December degree-days above 5°C

DD_18_01 – DD_18_12        January - December degree-days below 18°C

DD18_01 – DD18_12            January - December degree-days above 18°C

NFFD01 – NFFD12                January - December number of frost-free days

PAS01 – PAS12                     January – December precipitation as snow (mm)

Eref01 – Eref12                     January – December Hargreaves reference evaporation (mm)

CMD01 – CMD12                  January – December Hargreaves climatic moisture deficit (mm)

RH01 – RH12                        January – December relative humidity (%)  

CMI01 – CMI12                     January – December Hogg’s climate moisture index (mm)

How to download and install

How to use

1) Use the program interactively

Latitude and longitude can be entered in either decimal degrees (e.g. Lat: 51.542, Long: 129.333) or degree, minute and second (e.g., 51°30’15”N, 129°15’30’W). Longitude information is accepted either in positive or negative values. Elevation has to be entered in meters, or empty if no elevation data are available. If "Monthly variables", "Seasonal variables" or "All variables" output variables was selected, an additional output sheet appears and annual climate variables are still calculated.

Output data can be saved as a text file and imported to spreadsheet file using space-delimitated option.

 2) For multi-location process

Most users will have their sample data information in an Excel spreadsheet or in a text file. To make it possible for the program to read this data it must first be modified to a standard format.

Create a spreadsheet with the headers “ID1, ID2, lat, long, el” as shown in the example below. ID1 and ID2 can be “Location”, “Region” or whatever. The file must have the title row and all variables in the same order as shown. If you don’t have elevation information or a second ID, you have to put in “.” in the columns. If you have more information columns in your original file, you have to remove them.

If you use a GPS or GIS software to obtain your location information for many samples latitude values in the western hemisphere will be negative. For convenience, you can use either positive or negative values, and the program will automatically convert the data.


After the spreadsheet is prepared as shown, save it as “comma delimited text file” by choosing “Save as …” from the file menu, and then specifying (*.csv) from the “Save as type …” drop-down menu.

You can also directly create a comma delimited text file in any text editor such as Notepad. If there is a missing value, you need to enter a “.” between two commas.


 Save this text file with a .csv extension by writing out the full file name with extension in parenthesis when saving, e. g. “test.csv” instead of test.csv or test.

 Now you are ready for processing: Click on  to read your spreadsheet and on  to specify your output file folder and file. Then, click the  button. Climate variable information will be appended as additional columns to your input file. If elevation information is provided the climate variables will be elevation adjusted.

3) For Time Series

Time Series function works only for the multi-location process. To process a single location, you need to have the location in your input file.  Here are the steps to follow:

  1. Select “Time Series” (for historical years) or a future time series in the period section drop box;
  2. Select a variable category (monthly, seasonal, annual or all variables);
  3. Input the starting and ending years in the pop-up boxes;
  4. Specify input and output files, and click the “Calculate TS” button.

 4) Read and output raster map files

  1. Have a DEM raster file (*.asc) for the area of interest at the resolution you want. The raster file is required to be in a latitude-longitude projection, prepared in ArcGIS or in R (QGIS format is not supported). Here is the R code to convert a raster in TIF to ASC:


    tif <- raster('C:/data/dem.tif')

    NAvalue(tif)] <- -9999

    writeRaster(tif, 'C:/data/dem.asc',overwrite=TRUE)  

  2. Click the “Select input file” button and a file open box will show up;
  3. Navigate to the folder containing the raster file;
  4. Select the File type: “asc” as shown in the following screenshot and only asc raster files will show up:
  5. asc
  6. Select an asc input file and click “Open” button;
  7. Click the “Specify output file” button, and a default folder will show up;
  8. Click the “Save” button;
  9. Click the “Start” button, and climate variables in ASCII raster format will be generated;
  10. Projection: geographic coordinate system, GCS_WGS_1984.
  11. Data format: the following variables were multiplied by 10:

·         Annual: MAT, MWMT, MCMT, TD, AHM, SHM, EMT, EXT and MAR;

·         Seasonal: Tmax, Tmin, Tave and Rad;

·         Monthly: Tmax, Tmin, Tave and Rad.

 5) Process the raster output files

The output asc raster files can be directly imported (drag/drop) to ArcGIS or other GIS programs to generate maps. They can also be directly used in R to plot maps using the following code as an example:


mat <- raster('C:/data/mat.asc')


6) Tutorial videos